Modelling of Biomass-to-x: Challenges and Strategies
Gilardi, Matteo
Bisotti, Filippo
Berglihn, Olaf Trygve
Ruecker, Theresa
Brueck, Thomas
Wittgens, Bernd

How to Cite

Gilardi M., Bisotti F., Berglihn O.T., Ruecker T., Brueck T., Wittgens B., 2024, Modelling of Biomass-to-x: Challenges and Strategies, Chemical Engineering Transactions, 109, 271-276.


The progressive request for replacing fossil fuels and net-zero emissions by 2050 is forcing a change in the current paradigm and economy. Bioprocesses offer a significant alternative to conventional refineries, as they convert biomass into valuable platform chemicals, fuels, and/or heat and energy. The concept is disruptive, but the modelling is not straightforward due to the intrinsic complexity of the feedstock, the unconventional transformation (i.e., pre-treatment and chemical/thermal conversion, and product purification), and the number of species involved in the system. These aspects are of paramount importance and represent significant hurdles for modelling. In the present work, we review the main strategies used for bioprocesses modelling by highlighting advantages and drawbacks. Finally, the work presents a few applications applied in process design and preliminary assessment for biomass-to-X projects.